Meningococcal Disease and Vaccination Information
Massachusetts requires all newly enrolled full-time students attending a secondary school (e.g., boarding schools) or postsecondary institution (e.g., colleges) who will be living in a dormitory or other congregate housing licensed or approved by the secondary school or institution to:
- Receive meningococcal vaccine; or
- Fall within one of the exemptions in the law, which are discussed below.
The law provides an exemption for students signing a waiver that reviews the dangers of meningococcal disease and indicates that the vaccination has been declined. To qualify for this exemption, you are required to review the information below and sign the waiver at the end of this document. Please note, if a student is under 18 years of age, a parent or legal guardian must be given a copy of this document and must sign the waiver.
What is meningococcal disease?
Meningococcal disease is caused by infection with bacteria called Neisseria meningitidis. These bacteria can infect the tissue that surrounds the brain and spinal cord called the "meninges" and cause meningitis, or they can infect the blood or other body organs. In the US, about 1,000-3,000 people get meningococcal disease each year and 10-15% die despite receiving antibiotic treatment. Of those who live, another 11-19% lose their arms or legs, become deaf, have problems with their nervous systems, become mentally retarded, or suffer seizures or strokes.
How is meningococcal disease spread?
These bacteria are passed from person-to-person through saliva (spit). You must be in close contact with an infected person's saliva in order for the bacteria to spread. Close contact includes activities such as kissing, sharing water bottles, sharing eating/drinking utensils or sharing cigarettes with someone who is infected; or being within 3-6 feet of someone who is infected and is coughing or sneezing.
Who is at most risk for getting meningococcal disease?
High-risk groups include anyone with a damaged spleen or whose spleen has been removed, those with persistent complement component deficiency (an inherited immune disorder), HIV infection, those traveling to countries where meningococcal disease is very common, microbiologists and people who may have been exposed to meningococcal disease during an outbreak. People who live in certain settings such as college freshmen living in dormitories and military recruits are also at greater risk of disease.
Are some students in college and secondary schools at risk for meningococcal disease?
College freshmen living in residence halls or dormitories are at an increased risk for meningococcal disease as compared to individuals of the same age not attending college. The setting, combined with risk behaviors (such as alcohol consumption, exposure to cigarette smoke, sharing food or beverages, and activities involving the exchange of saliva), may be what puts college students at a greater risk for infection. There is insufficient information about whether new students in other congregate living situations (e.g., residential schools) may also be at increased risk for meningococcal disease. But, the similarity in their environments and some behaviors may increase their risk. The risk of meningococcal disease for other college students, in particular older students and students who do not live in congregate housing, is not increased. However, meningococcal vaccine is a safe and efficacious way to reduce their risk of contracting this disease.
Is there a vaccine against meningococcal disease?
Yes, there are currently 2 types of vaccines available that protect against 4 of the most common of the 13 serogroups (subgroups) of N. meningitidis that cause serious disease. Meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine is approved for use in those 2 years of age and older. There are 2 licensed meningococcal conjugate vaccines. Menactra® is approved for use in those 9 months - 55 years of age and Menveo® is approved for use in those 2-55 years of age. Both the polysaccharide and conjugate vaccines provide protection against four serogroups of the bacteria, called groups A, C, Y and W-135. These four serogroups account for approximately two-thirds of the cases that occur in the U.S. each year. Most of the remaining one-third of the cases are caused by serogroup B, which is not contained in either vaccine. Meningococcal vaccines are thought to provide protection for approximately 5 years. Currently, students are only required to have a dose of polysaccharide vaccine within the last 5 years or a dose of conjugate vaccine at any time in the past (or fall within one of the exemptions allowed by law).
However, please be aware that in October 2010 the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended booster doses of meningococcal conjugate vaccine for healthy adolescents 16-18 years of age. Persons up to 21 years of age entering college are recommended to have documentation of a dose of meningococcal conjugate vaccine no more than 5 years before enrollment, particularly if they are new residential students.
Is the meningococcal vaccine safe?
A vaccine, like any medicine, is capable of causing serious problems such as severe allergic reactions. Getting meningococcal vaccine is much safer than getting the disease. Some people who get meningococcal vaccine have mild side effects, such as redness or pain where the shot was given. These symptoms usually last for 1-2 days. A small percentage of people who receive the vaccine develop a fever. The vaccine can be given to pregnant women. Anyone who has ever had Guillain-Barré Syndrome should talk with their provider before getting meningococcal conjugate vaccine.
Is it mandatory for students to receive meningococcal vaccine for entry into secondary schools or colleges that provide or license housing?
Massachusetts law (MGL Ch. 76, s.15D) requires newly enrolled full-time students attending a secondary school (those schools with grades 9-12) or postsecondary institution (e.g., colleges) who will be living in a dormitory or other congregate housing licensed or approved by the secondary school or institution to receive meningococcal vaccine. At affected secondary schools, the requirements apply to all new full-time residential students, regardless of grade (including grades pre-K through 8) and year of study. All students covered by the regulations must provide documentation of having received a dose of meningococcal polysaccharide vaccine within the last 5 years (or a dose of meningococcal conjugate vaccine at any time in the past), unless they qualify for one of the exemptions allowed by the law. Whenever possible, immunizations should be obtained prior to enrollment or registration. However, students may be enrolled or registered provided that the required immunizations are obtained within 30 days of registration.
Students may begin classes without a certificate of immunization against meningococcal disease if: 1) the student has a letter from a physician stating that there is a medical reason why he/she can't receive the vaccine; 2) the student (or the student's parent or legal guardian, if the student is a minor) presents a statement in writing that such vaccination is against his/her sincere religious belief; or 3) the student (or the student's parent or legal guardian, if the student is a minor) signs the waiver below stating that the student has received information about the dangers of meningococcal disease, reviewed the information provided and elected to decline the vaccine.
Where can a student get vaccinated?
Students and their parents should contact their healthcare provider and make an appointment to discuss meningococcal disease, the benefits and risks of vaccination, and the availability of this vaccine. Schools and college health services are not required to provide you with this vaccine.
Where can I get more information?